EDITED BY JOSEPH M. VALENZANO III - CONTRIBUTIONS BY LINDSEY ANDERSON; LORI BLEWETT; LINDA CAROZZA; KATE CHALLIS; MAUREEN EBBEN; ALI GARIB; STEVE GENNARO; CYNDI GROBMEIER; KATHERINE HAMPSTEN; ASHLEY A. HANNA EDWARDS; ELIZABETH HELMICK; AMANDA HILL; ANNE KRETSINGER- HARRIES; BRITTANY N. LASH; AMANDA LOHISER; MELISSA A. LUCAS; RAPHAEL MAZZONE; MATT MCGARRITY; ANGELA M. MCGOWAN-KIRSCH; BRAD MELLO; SCOTT A. MYERS; JOHN J. RIEF; SHARON STORCH; CASEY M. STRATTON AND JOSEPH M. VALENZANO III
Post-Pandemic Pedagogy: A Paradigm Shift discusses how the COVID-19 pandemic radically altered teaching and learning for faculty and students alike. The increased prevalence of video-conferencing software for conducting classes fundamentally changed the way in which we teach and seemingly upended many best practices for good pedagogy in the college classroom. Whether it was the reflection over surveillance software, or the increased mental health demands of the pandemic on teachers and students, or the completely reshaped ways in which classes and co-curricular experiences were delivered, the pandemic year represented an opportunity for one of the largest shifts in our understanding of good pedagogy unlike any experienced in the modern era. This edited collection explores what we thought we knew about a variety of teaching ideas, how the pandemic changed our approach to them, and proposes ways in which some of the adjustments made to accommodate the pandemic will remain for years to come. Scholars of communication, pedagogy, and education will find this book particularly interesting.
Michael G. Hillard PhD
From the early twentieth century until the 1960s, Maine led the nation in paper production. The state could have earned a reputation as the Detroit of paper production, however, the industry eventually slid toward failure. What happened? Shredding Paper unwraps the changing US political economy since 1960, uncovers how the paper industry defined and interacted with labor relations, and peels away the layers of history that encompassed the rise and fall of Maine's mighty paper industry.
Michael G. Hillard deconstructs the paper industry's unusual technological and economic histories. For a century, the story of the nation's most widely read glossy magazines and card stock was one of capitalism, work, accommodation, and struggle. Local paper companies in Maine dominated the political landscape, controlling economic, workplace, land use, and water use policies. Hillard examines the many contributing factors surrounding how Maine became a paper powerhouse and then shows how it lost that position to changing times and foreign interests.
Through a retelling of labor relations and worker experiences from the late nineteenth century up until the late 1990s, Hillard highlights how national conglomerates began absorbing family-owned companies over time, which were subject to Wall Street demands for greater short-term profits after 1980. This new political economy impacted the economy of the entire state and destroyed Maine's once-vaunted paper industry. Shredding Paper truthfully and transparently tells the great and grim story of blue-collar workers and their families and analyzes how paper workers formulated a "folk" version of capitalism's history in their industry. Ultimately, Hillard offers a telling example of the demise of big industry in the United States.
Carol Fackler DNSc, RN
Chapter from The Many Roles of the Registered Nurse, ed. Debra Gillespie.
More about this book:
Nurses are the largest population of healthcare providers practicing in both urban and remote areas across the globe. Currently, the nursing profession is in the midst of a significant shortage as aging baby boomers retire and a nursing faculty shortage forces many colleges and universities to turn away qualified applicants. As healthcare needs of the population become more complex and technologies advance, our world needs nurses now more than at any other time in history. This book provides the reader with a wide overview of the many vast roles within the nursing profession, showing that the responsibilities are complex, challenging and rewarding. It will allow the reader to understand the current job market for nurses and perhaps even persuade some to choose this rewarding profession.
Larissa Malone PhD
Chapter 7 in Family Engagement in Black Students’ Academic Success Achievement and Resistance in an American Suburban School, edited by Vilma Seeberg.
This timely volume presents powerful stories told by Black families and students who have successfully negotiated a racially fraught, affluent, and diverse suburban school district in America, to illustrate how they have strategically contested sanctioned racist practices and forged a path for students to achieve a high-quality education. Drawing on rich qualitative data collected through interviews and interactions with parents and kin, students, community activists, and educators, Family Engagement in Black Students’ Academic Success chronicles how pride in Black American family history and values, students’ personal capabilities, and their often collective, proactive challenges to systemic and personal racism shape students’ academic engagement. Familial and collective cultural wealth of the Black community emerges as a central driver in students’ successful achievement. Finally, the text puts forward key recommendations to demonstrate how incorporating the knowledge and voices of Black families in school decision making, remaining critically conscious of race and racial history in everyday actions and longer term policy, and pursuing collective strategies for social justice in education, will help eliminate current opportunity gaps, and will counteract the master narrative of underachievement ever-present in America. This volume will be of interest to students, scholars, and academics with an interest in matters of social justice, equity, and equality of opportunity in education for Black Americans. In addition, the text offers key insights for school authorities in building effective working relationships with Black American families to support the high achievement of Black students in K-12 education.
Robert M. Sanford PhD, William S. Plumley, and Michael Shaughnessy
River Voices: Perspectives on the Presumpscot is a celebration of a river, a vision of stewardship and caring, with chapter topics ranging from geology to Native American history to fighting for fish passage. Illustrated throughout with original and historical works of art, this book embodies the concept of managing a river through appreciation of all of its attributes and aspects. If you live in this watershed you will appreciate it. And if you live somewhere else, this is a model for caring for a river.
Maureen Ebben PhD and Julien Murphy PhD
Chapter from Privacy Concerns Surrounding Personal Information Sharing on Health and Fitness Mobile Apps, by Devjani Sen and Rukhsana Ahmed.
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This chapter charts the language of privacy in published scholarship on mental health apps. What definition of privacy is assumed? What meanings of privacy are deployed in the research about mental health apps? Using a qualitative thematic approach, this analysis shows that privacy language can be understood as occurring in three phases: Phase 1: Discourse of Technological Possibility; Phase 2: Discourse of Privacy Challenges and Threats; and Phase 3: Discourse of Advocacy. The authors discuss each of these phases and propose a more critical discourse of privacy by identifying the issues inherent in understanding privacy as security.
Stephanie C. Edwards PhD
Book is Forthcoming: June 2020
Chapter from Healing and Peacebuilding after War: Transforming Trauma in Bosnia and Herzegovina, edited by Julianne Funk and Nancy Good.
About the book:
This book brings together multiple perspectives to examine the strengths and limitations of efforts to promote healing and peacebuilding after war, focusing on the aftermath of the traumatic armed conflict in Bosnia and Herzegovina,
This book begins with a simple premise: trauma that is not transformed is transferred. Drawing on multidisciplinary insights from academics, peace practitioners and trauma experts, this book examines the limitations of our current strategies for promoting healing and peacebuilding after war, while offering inroads into best practices to prevent future violence through psychosocial trauma recovery and the healing of memories. The contributions create a conversation which allows readers to critically rethink the deeper roots and mechanisms of trauma created by the war.
Collectively, the authors provide strategic recommendations to policymakers, peace practitioners, donors and international organizations engaged in work in Bosnia and Herzegovina— strategies that can be applied to other countries rebuilding after war.
This volume will be of much interest to students of conflict resolution, peacebuilding, social psychology, Balkan politics and International Relations in general.
Maureen Ebben PhD
Chapter 1 from Maintaining Social Well-Being and Meaningful Work in a Highly Automated Job Market, edited by Shalin Hai-Jew.
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This chapter examines the nature of work where human labor is a complement to machines and considers its import for social well-being. While dominant portrayals about the effects of work automation are often characterized by discourses of fear and hype, these have limited utility. The chapter proposes moving beyond fear and hype to consider the ways in which automation alters the organization of work and the human role. It asserts that, although essential, the human role in automation is often obscured. Drawing on the concepts of “fauxtomation,” "heteromation," and human infrastructures, the chapter makes visible hidden forms of human labor in automated work and maintains that a positive strategy for social well-being is the recognition and revaluation of human work in automated processes.
Matthew H. Edney PhD and Mary Sponberg Pedley PhD
Since its launch in 1987, the History of Cartography series has garnered critical acclaim and sparked a new generation of interdisciplinary scholarship. Cartography in the European Enlightenment, the highly anticipated fourth volume, offers a comprehensive overview of the cartographic practices of Europeans, Russians, and the Ottomans, both at home and in overseas territories, from 1650 to 1800.
The social and intellectual changes that swept Enlightenment Europe also transformed many of its mapmaking practices. A new emphasis on geometric principles gave rise to improved tools for measuring and mapping the world, even as large-scale cartographic projects became possible under the aegis of powerful states. Yet older mapping practices persisted: Enlightenment cartography encompassed a wide variety of processes for making, circulating, and using maps of different types. The volume’s more than four hundred encyclopedic articles explore the era’s mapping, covering topics both detailed—such as geodetic surveying, thematic mapping, and map collecting—and broad, such as women and cartography, cartography and the economy, and the art and design of maps. Copious bibliographical references and nearly one thousand full-color illustrations complement the detailed entries.
David P. Pierson PhD
Book chapter from The Palgrave Handbook of Incarceration in Popular Media, edited by Marcus Harmes, Meredith Harmes, and Barbara Harmes.
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This proposed chapter will conduct a sociocultural and close textual analysis of the following Black Mirror television episodes: “White Bear” (2/18/2013), “White Christmas” (12/16/2014), and “Black Museum” (12/29/2017) to examine their representations of speculative punishment, incarceration, and social and mental control. One guiding research question is whether these representations illustrate present-day issues and concerns in Western criminology and penal theory. Black Mirror (2011-present) is a British science fiction TV anthology series created by Charlie Brooker, which usually focuses on a range of fictional computer-human interface technologies along with their unintended human consequences. In “White Bear” state penal authorities erase the daily memories of a convicted woman in order that she can relive a nightmarish experience of being hunted down by a gang of masked hunters while bystanders act as passive voyeurs watching and recording everything around them. The bystanders turn out to be park visitors enjoying the violent spectacle of the convict’s routine punishment. In “White Christmas” (12/16/2014) a networked, interactive dating coach, who was responsible for a client’s death, is released by the police but is registered as a sex offender, which means that he will be visually and aurally blocked by everyone. He will appear as a red silhouette and will be unable to interact with anyone for the rest of his life. In this same episode, a murder suspect has his consciousness downloaded into a digital copy called a “Cookie,” which enables authorities to incarcerate him within a virtual creation of the crime scene (a snowbound cottage) and to sentence him to such severe, Draconian punishments as having him experience time at the rate of one thousand years per minute and having a Christmas song play on a continuous loop for the time period. The suspect gradually begins to lose his sanity. In “Black Museum,” a convicted murderer agrees to have his post-death consciousness downloaded into a Cookie only to find himself as a hologram in a museum display whereby he continues to experience the agony of the electric chair at the hands of visitors. This study argues that these near future representations are expressive of contemporary neoliberal governance and criminology, public shaming and humiliation, penal tourism, and criminal justice and punishment as entertainment. The episodes’ futuristic punishments exemplify the type of retributive justice that has come to characterize the neoliberal penal turn in criminal justice in the United States and in the United Kingdom over the past three decades. This new punitiveness includes mandatory imprisonment sentences, such as the “Three Strikes and You’re Out” law, and zero tolerance school policies to schemes that provide for public humiliation and shaming for those under sentence (e.g., chain gangs) or ex-prisoners (“I am a sex offender” home warning signs). Mike Nellis (2006) affirms that dystopian penal imagery in American science fiction films approximately corresponds with markedly more punitive penal practices for the past 30 years. Some of these films as well as focus on the use of panoptic surveillance and digital technologies for disciplinary control and as agents of confinement express cultural anxieties about the increased capacity of these technologies for social and mental control. The aforementioned Black Mirror episodes intersect with these and other relevant discourses as they serve to imagine a technological future characterized by new forms of governance and social management, spectatorship punishment and confinement.
Charles Bernacchio EdD; Josephine F. Wilson DDS, PhD; and Anupama Ginige PhD
Book chapter from Sustainable Community Health: Systems and Practices in Diverse Settings edited by Elias Mpofu.
More about this book:
Applying a trans-disciplinary approach, this book provides a comprehensive, research-based guide to understanding, implementing, and strengthening sustainable community health in diverse international settings. By examining the interdependence of environmental, economic, public health, community wellbeing and development factors, the authors address the systemic factors impacting health disparities, inequality and social justice issues.
The book analyzes strategies based on a partnership view of health, in which communities determine their health and wellness working alongside local, state and federal health agencies. Crucially, it demonstrates that communities are themselves health systems and their wellbeing capabilities affect the health of individuals and the collective alike. It identifies health indicators and tools that communities and policy makers can utilize to sustain truly inclusive health systems. This book offers a unique resource for researchers and practitioners working across psychology, mental health, rehabilitation, public health, epidemiology, social policy, healthcare and allied health.
Charles Bernacchio EdD, Josephine F. Wilson, and Jeewani Anupama Ginige
Chapter in Sustainable Community Health Systems and Practices in Diverse Settings, edited by Elias Mpofu.
In response to health access barriers, telehealth and telemedicine have grown as a supplemental healthcare delivery system to mainstream medical care. For rural and remote communities, which are mostly less well resourced, telehealth and telemedicine is increasingly a major system enabling health access and availability, bridging population health disparities by geography and socioeconomic gradients. People in low resources settings have less access to health care, while commuting for health services to the cities would be costly in terms of time, effort, and money, resulting in health inequities and social injustices on them. In this chapter, we examine the role of telehealth and telemedicine as health systems for providing sustainable community health in low resource settings. In doing so, we provide a historical overview of the research and practice in telehealth and telemedicine, followed by a discussion of current leading practices in telehealth and telemedicine. We consider the cultural and legal influences on telehealth and telemedicine services across jurisdictions highlighting responsiveness to local contexts and needs. Finally, we consider the issues for research and practice in telehealth and telemedicine, including security and privacy associated with telehealth; education for sustaining telehealth delivery; engaging high-risk populations from low-resource settings in telehealth services; and use of social networks to ensure telehealth care access for poor and remote regions.
Applying a trans-disciplinary approach, this book provides a comprehensive, research-based guide to understanding, implementing, and strengthening sustainable community health in diverse international settings. By examining the interdependence of environmental, economic, public health, community wellbeing, and development factors, the authors address the systemic factors impacting health disparities, inequality, and social justice issues.
The book analyzes strategies based on a partnership view of health, in which communities determine their health and wellness working alongside local, state, and federal health agencies. Crucially, it demonstrates that communities are themselves health systems and their wellbeing capabilities affect the health of individuals and the collective alike. It identifies health indicators and tools that communities and policy makers can utilize to sustain truly inclusive health systems. This book offers a unique resource for researchers and practitioners working across psychology, mental health, rehabilitation, public health, epidemiology, social policy, healthcare, and allied health.
Carol Fackler DNSc, RN
Chapter 21 in Clinical Nurse Leader Certification Review, Third Edition, edited by Cynthia R. King PhD, MSN, NP, RN, CNL, FAAN; Sally Gerard DNP, RN, CDE, CNL; Carla Gene Rapp PhD, MNSc, RN.
The third edition of this gold standard for CNL certification review continues to provide healthcare facilities and clients with validation of the qualifications and knowledge of this advanced nursing generalist practice role. This certification review is a product of Dr. King's rigorous exam preparation course, which resulted in a 100% pass rate among students. This review serves as a helpful guide for faculty on how to design CNL review courses, and has been used to teach in CNL programs, as well as for students and nurses preparing to take the exam.
Following an introductory section examining the CNL role, how to make the best use of the review, and strategies for taking tests, this text is organized to reflect the latest exam content outline, mirroring the domains and subdomains of the exam. It provides detailed information on how to analyze and interpret exam questions, disseminates expert test-taking skills, and offers a detailed content review of everything you need to know for exam success. It delivers new information corresponding to the new Commission on Nurse Certification (CNC) outline, with updated chapters on healthcare advocacy and ethics, lateral integration, interprofessional skills, team coordination, and evidence-based practice.
New to the Third Edition:
- Reflects updates and revisions based on the most recent exam content outline
- Provides 200 new multiple-choice Q&As with rationale created from scratch
- Delivers 16 new unfolding case studies
- Offers new objectives, updated summaries, and innovative review activities to reinforce material in each chapter
- Explains how to analyze and interpret questions for exam success
- Promotes savvy test-taking skills
- Includes a comprehensive exam with answers and rationales
- Includes an expanded glossary and additional tables and figures
- Provides easy access to information with an appendix that cross-references questions to appropriate exam content topics
Julien Murphy PhD
Chapter from The Sartrean Mind, edited by Matthew C. Eshleman and Constance M. Lui.
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Jean-Paul Sartre was one of the most important philosophers of the twentieth century. His influence extends beyond academic philosophy to areas as diverse as anti-colonial movements, youth culture, literary criticism, and artistic developments around the world. Beginning with an introduction and biography of Jean-Paul Sartre by Matthew C. Eshleman, 42 chapters by a team of international contributors cover all the major aspects of Sartre’s thought in the following key areas:
- Sartre’s philosophical and historical context
- Sartre and phenomenology
- Sartre, existentialism, and ontology
- Sartre and ethics
- Sartre and political theory
- Aesthetics, literature, and biography
- Sartre’s engagements with other thinkers.
The Sartrean Mind is the most comprehensive collection on Sartre published to date. It is essential reading for students and researchers in philosophy, as well as for those in related disciplines where Sartre’s work has continuing importance, such as literature, French studies, and politics.
Carla Randall PhD, RN, CNE and Cynthia Randall DNP, RN, CNL
Attendees will view and participate in a simulated experience using Critical Incident Videos. Attendees will role-play possible outcomes and explore how the videos can assist to improve teaching practices of nurse educators. In debriefing, attendees will brainstorm ways to expand these ideas into their own teaching practice.
Christina Clamp, Eklou R. Amendah PhD, and Carole Coren
The story of shared services cooperatives is compelling for the breadth and depth of its utility across multiple sectors of the US economy. Shared services cooperatives are member associations formed to meet a variety of institutional needs for economies and efficiencies of scale through collaboration in areas such as purchasing, marketing, processing and distribution. They are organized and operate as for-profit or not-for-profit business entities and appear in a broad array of industry and public service sectors, providing a variety of benefits, services and opportunities today in rural, suburban and urban communities throughout the US. This qualitative study sets out to describe the ways in which shared services cooperatives are organized, who are the members, how shared services cooperatives benefit their members and why the members formed a cooperative as opposed to other forms of collaboration (joint ventures, subsidiaries or collaborative agreements). Shared services cooperatives in all the cases studied have led to long-term impacts in addressing organizational needs. All the cooperatives in this study have effectively served their members’ needs. Whether it was a cooperative designed to enhance competitiveness, or to lower risks, to acquire new sources of funding or to allow the cooperative members to scale up or sustain the organization, the story has been the same. The shared services cooperative works very well as a way to meet these varied needs.
Jennifer Monroe McCutchen PhD
Brendan McQuade PhD
The United States has poured over a billion dollars into a network of interagency intelligence centers called “fusion centers.” These centers were ostensibly set up to prevent terrorism, but politicians, the press, and policy advocates have criticized them for failing on this account. So why do these security systems persist? Pacifying the Homeland travels inside the secret world of intelligence fusion, looks beyond the apparent failure of fusion centers, and reveals a broader shift away from mass incarceration and toward a more surveillance- and police-intensive system of social regulation.
Provided with unprecedented access to domestic intelligence centers, Brendan McQuade uncovers how the institutionalization of intelligence fusion enables decarceration without fully addressing the underlying social problems at the root of mass incarceration. The result is a startling analysis that contributes to the debates on surveillance, mass incarceration, and policing and challenges readers to see surveillance, policing, mass incarceration, and the security state in an entirely new light.
Daniel M. Martinez PhD, Ben W. Ebenhack, and Travis P. Wagner PhD
Energy Efficiency: Concepts and Calculations is the first book of its kind to provide an applied, systems oriented description of energy intensity and efficiency in modern economies across the entire energy chain. With an emphasis on analysis, specifically energy flow analysis, lifecycle energy accounting, economic analysis, technology evaluation, and policies/strategies for adopting high energy efficiency standards, the book provides a comprehensive understanding of the concepts, tools and methodologies for studying and modeling macro-level energy flows through, and within, key economic sectors (electric power, industrial, commercial, residential and transportation).
Providing a technical discussion of the application of common methodologies (e.g. cost-benefit analysis and lifecycle assessment), each chapter contains figures, charts and examples from each sector, including the policies that have been put in place to promote and incentivize the adoption of energy efficient technologies.
Matthew H. Edney PhD
Over the past four decades, the volumes published in the landmark History of Cartography series have both chronicled and encouraged scholarship about maps and mapping practices across time and space. As the current director of the project that has produced these volumes, Matthew H. Edney has a unique vantage point for understanding what “cartography” has come to mean and include.
In this book Edney disavows the term cartography, rejecting the notion that maps represent an undifferentiated category of objects for study. Rather than treating maps as a single, unified group, he argues, scholars need to take a processual approach that examines specific types of maps—sea charts versus thematic maps, for example—in the context of the unique circumstances of their production, circulation, and consumption. To illuminate this bold argument, Edney chronicles precisely how the ideal of cartography that has developed in the West since 1800 has gone astray. By exposing the flaws in this ideal, his book challenges everyone who studies maps and mapping practices to reexamine their approach to the topic. The study of cartography will never be the same.
Jamie Pratt Psy.D, Garry Wickerd PhD, and Mark W. Steege
Chapter 5 in Behavioral Interventions in Schools: Evidence-Based Positive Strategies, Second Edition.
Without effective behavior management, a positive and productive classroom environment is impossible. And while 50 years of scientific research supports the efficacy of behavioral interventions in the classroom, school psychologists and teachers are often unaware of these interventions or how to apply them. In this new edition of a landmark volume, Steven G. Little and Angeleque Akin-Little present a three-pronged approach to strengthening educators' understanding of the behavioral model. Contributors first describe the research foundations of behavioral interventions — a necessary understanding for these strategies to be implemented effectively and with integrity. Next, recognizing the rise in diagnoses of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), new chapters describe screening and diagnosis of ASD, discrete trial training, pivotal response training, verbal behavior interventions, and structured teaching approaches. Authors also explain how to use cognitive behavior therapy interventions with children and families to treat a variety of symptoms and behaviors. This book will provide school psychologists, counselors, social workers, school administrators, and teachers with the intervention and prevention strategies they need to succeed in today's classroom.
T Sirota and Brenda Petersen PhD, MSN, RN, APRN-BC, CPNP-PC
Chapter 18 in Nursing Deans on Leading, edited by Joanne Robinson PhD, RN, FAAN; Carole Kenner PhD, NNP, FAAN; and Jana L. Pressler PhD, RN.
Learn leadership skills from experienced deans!
The first resource written specifically for novice and aspiring deans and directors of nursing education, this engaging guide shares practical advice, wisdom, and insight from experienced academic leaders. These insights will help nurses who are new to academic leadership positions. Within its pages, experienced deans share their wisdom on how a new dean or director can succeed in a leadership position.
With an emphasis on acquiring critical knowledge and essential skills, this book describes the parameters of the nursing dean or director role, practical strategies for resolving day-to-day issues, everything from student success to budget and fiscal health, and how to practice self-care while constantly tackling the challenges of these roles. Seventeen academic nursing leaders from across the United States deliver fundamental guidance to help readers determine how to navigate the multifaceted opportunities and challenges of deaning and directing.
- Key Features:
- Written in an accessible, engaging style for novice and aspiring academic nursing leaders
- Everyday strategies for dealing with routine issues
- Addresses the need for self-care and how to manage the stress and complexities of the leadership role
- Abundant real-world case studies and best practices
- Online resources for further study
Mark W. Steege PhD, Jamie Pratt Psy.D, Garry Wickerd PhD, Richard Guare, and T Steuart Watson
Widely recognized as a gold-standard resource, this authoritative book has been revised and expanded with 50% new material. It provides a complete introduction to functional behavioral assessment (FBA), complete with procedures, forms, and tools that have been piloted and refined in both general and special education settings. Numerous vivid examples illustrate how to use the authors' behavior-analytic problem-solving model (BAPS) to synthesize assessment results and guide the design of individually tailored interventions. Practitioners and students enjoy the engaging, conversational tone. In a large-size format with lay-flat binding for easy photocopying, the book includes 17 reproducible checklists and forms. Purchasers get access to a companion Web page where they can download and print the reproducible materials. New to This Edition Revised BAPS model reflects the latest research and offers a more comprehensive approach to FBA. Chapters on professional and ethical standards; analyzing how biological/medical conditions, thoughts, and emotions influence behavior; and analyzing how executive skills deficits influence behavior. Chapters on testing hypotheses about the functions of problem behavior; testing reinforcer effectiveness; and evaluating function-based interventions. Chapter providing applied learning experiences for professionals and students. Most of the reproducible tools are new or revised.
Travis P. Wagner PhD
Chapter from "Encyclopedia of Food Security and Sustainability, Volume 2", edited by Pasquale Ferranti, Elliot M. Berry, and Jock R. Anderson.
Plastics are the dominant material for food and beverage containers and packaging. As a waste, the majority of plastics are landfilled, incinerated, or become litter; only 9% of all plastics are recycled. In addition to the low recycling rate, which is not sustainable, the increasing buildup of plastics in the environment, especially in the oceans, has made plastics a global concern. In the marine environment, plastics breakdown to microplastics, which negatively impact marine organisms through accidental and intentional ingestion. Most efforts to address plastic waste have been undertaken by local governments, but increasingly, national and state-level governments are seeking to shift the environmental responsibility of plastic waste back onto the producers as a means to reduce plastic waste.