1. Livingston, J. N. (2004). An assessment of the relationship between racial identity, psychological empowerment, African American activism, and psychological well-being in African Americans (Doctoral dissertation). Department of Psychology, Michigan State University, East Lansing.
2.Thomas, O. N. (2001). Collective action, socio-political attitudes, and social change preference: A multidimensional measure of African American activism (Unpublished master’s thesis). Michigan State University, East Lansing.
3. See Evelyn Brooks Higginbotham, ASALH National President, opening remarks to the Association for the Study of African American Life. February 1, 2021. https://asalh.org/asalh-announces-2021-black-history-theme/
4. Stephen A. Berrey. (2009). Resistance Begins at Home: The Black Family and Lessons in Survival and Subversion in Jim Crow Mississippi. Black Women, Gender + Families, 3(1), 65–90. http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.5406/blacwomegendfami.3.1.0065
5. Livingston, J. N., Bell Hughes, K., Dawson, D., Williams, A., Mohabir, J. A., Eleanya, A., ... & Brandon, D. (2017). Feeling no ways tired: A resurgence of activism in the African American community. Journal of Black Studies, 48(3), 279-304.
6. Neighmond, Patti. July 19, 2020. “Change Can Happen”: Black Families on Racism, Hope and Parenting. NPR, Maine Public. https://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2020/07/19/891517857/change-can-happen-black-families-on-racism-hope-and-parenting
7. Gyant, L., & Atwater, D. F. (1996). Septima Clark's rhetorical and ethnic legacy: Her message of citizenship in the civil rights movement. Journal of Black Studies, 26(5), 577-592.
8. Gordon, J. U. (2000). Black males in the civil rights movement. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 569(1), 42-55.
9. Collier-Thomas, B., & Franklin, V. P. (Eds.). (2001). Sisters in the struggle: African American women in the civil rights-black power movement. NYU Press
10. Capshaw, K. (2014). Civil rights childhood: Picturing liberation in African American photobooks. U of Minnesota Press.
11. Levine, E. S. (2000). Freedom's children: Young civil rights activists tell their own stories. Penguin.
12. Brugar, K. A. (2015). Children as civic agents during the Civil Rights Movement. Social Studies and the Young Learner, 27(4), 5-10.
13. See Boone 1996:50 in Boone, W. (1996). Breaking through: Taking the kingdom into the culture by out-serving others. Nashville: Broadman and Holman Publisher.
14. Cain, D. S., & Combs-Orme, T. (2005). Family structure effects on parenting stress and practices in the African American family. J. Soc. & Soc. Welfare, 32, 19.
15. Mandara, J., & Murray, C. B. (2000). Effects of parental marital status, income, and family functioning on African American adolescent self-esteem. Journal of Family Psychology, 14(3), 475.
16. Painter, N. I. (2006). Creating Black Americans: African-American history and its meanings, 1619to the present. Oxford University Press, USA.
17. Cain, D. S., & Combs-Orme, T. (2005). Family structure effects on parenting stress and practices in the African American family. J. Soc. & Soc. Welfare, 32, 19.
18. Mandara, J., & Murray, C. B. (2000). Effects of parental marital status, income, and family functioning on African American adolescent self-esteem. Journal of Family Psychology, 14(3), 475.