Universal-Diverse Orientation of Business, Education, and Social Work Students

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Publication Date


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International Journal of Management in Education


Business education, multicultural awareness, intercultural competence, diversity curriculum, human development, graduates, interdisciplinary differences, UDO, universal-diverse orientation, United States


Purpose of this interdisciplinary research was to measure the level of multicultural awareness, sensitivity to and understanding of difference, and intercultural competence when working in diverse environments in the undergraduate and graduate Business, Education and Human Development, and Social Work students using the Universal-Diverse Orientation (UDO) (MGUDS-S survey). Convenient purposive sampling was utilised to invite students enrolled in these three schools to participate in web-based descriptive survey research. Students in Social Work had the greatest UDO, followed by students in Education and Human Development, and the Business students. Interdisciplinary differences in context of variables, such as degree, number of prior diversity courses, exposure to diverse cultures, gender, spirituality, and political affiliation, are discussed, along with recommendations for education and practice.