Onset of the Thermic Effect of Feeding (TEF): A Randomized Cross-Over Trial

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Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition


Gastric Emptying, Rest Metabolic Rate, Liquid Meal, Lower Drink, Consecutive Data Point


Background The purpose of this investigation was to identify the onset of the thermic effect of feeding (TEF) after ingestion of a high carbohydrate (CHO) and a high protein (PRO) 1255 kJ (300 kcal) drink. Methods Resting metabolic rate (RMR) and TEF were measured over 30-minute periods via indirect calorimetry using a ventilated hood technique. Eighteen subjects (7 men and 11 women) completed two randomized, double-blind trials. Data were collected in 1-minute measurement intervals. RMR was subtracted from TEF and the time of onset was obtained when two consecutive data points exceeded 5% and 10% of resting metabolic rate. Results At 5% above RMR the onset of TEF for CHO was 8.4 ± 6.2 minutes and was not different as compared to PRO, 8.6 ± 5.2 minutes (p = 0.77). Likewise, no differences were found with a 10% increase above RMR: CHO, 14.1 ± 7.5 min; PRO, 16.7 ± 6.7 min (p = 0.36). Several subjects did not show a 10% increase within 30-min. Conclusion We conclude that the onset of TEF is variable among subjects but is initiated within about 5 to 20-min for most subjects after ingestion of a 1255 kJ liquid meal. No differences were found between CHO or PRO liquid meals.


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