An updated review of neuroimaging studies of children and adolescents with perinatally acquired HIV

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Journal of Pediatric Neuropsychology


HIV, Imaging, Children, Review


A recent review of neuroimaging studies related to perinatally acquired human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection by Hoare and colleagues (Metabolic Brain Disease 29:221–229, 2014) included studies published between 1995 and 2012, with all but two studies being published in or before 2006. Although the review synthesized the extant research available at the time, the findings may not be relevant to the current population of children and adolescents who are HIV positive due to more recent advances in antiretroviral medication and new medication guidelines. As such, the purpose of this paper was to extend the findings of Hoare and colleagues by reviewing the imaging literature that has been published since 2012 and to compare the more recent studies to the earlier ones. The results were that 11 articles met criteria for inclusion in this review. The majority of studies were cross-sectional and analyzed MRI data.. Samples included children and adolescents of nearly all ages. Studies differed widely on the inclusion and reporting of clinical variables. Imaging was focused primarily on white matter, and white matter issues such as lesions, poor tract integrity, and reduced volume were found in samples of children and adolescents of various age ranges. Two studies compared the cognitive functioning of children with HIV to controls, and both found that children with HIV perform more poorly than their non-infected peers on various cognitive tasks. Based on the findings of this review, recommendations for future imaging research are made.


© American Academy of Pediatric Neuropsychology 2015