A critical review of the literature on NLD as a developmental disorder

Document Type


Publication Date


Publication Title

Child Neuropsychology


Asperger's Disorder, Nonverbal learning disability, Review


The extant research on nonverbal learning disability (NLD) was analyzed in this review. Studies were defined for use in the review as those that appeared in a peer-reviewed journal and included participants characterized as having NLD. Each study also needed to provide a statistical analysis of dependent variables. An a priori system was used to evaluate the quality of the research. Of the 88 publications found, 32 met criteria for inclusion in the review, with 6 meeting full criteria as strong studies. The diagnostic criteria used and the research findings are briefly discussed, as are proposed guidelines for future research.


This work was partially funded by an anonymous foundation as well as funding from the Departments of Counseling, Educational Psychology, and Special Education, Psychology and Psychiatry at Michigan State University.