Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Public Health (MPH)


Public Health

First Advisor

Mary Lindsey Smith

Second Advisor

Andrew Coburn


opiate addiction, patient education, OEND, Maine, reduction opiate overdose, Muskie School of Public Service


Background: Overdose deaths, specifically related to opioids, have been identified as a public health problem both nationally and in the state of Maine. Overdose Education and Naloxone Distribution (OEND) is an innovative model of patient education that has been shown to be effective in increasing knowledge of overdose risk and has the potential to help reduce opiate related overdose deaths.

Methods: A 28-item web-based survey examining clinician attitudes, OEND practices and characteristics was distributed to 196 Maine based physicians with a Drug Enforcement Agency waiver to prescribe burprenorphine/naloxone. Facilitators and barriers to the provision of OEND were also assessed. Surveys were sent via regular and email with follow up surveys sent to 2-4 week intervals. Responses were received from 28 of the 196 physicians with vaild addresses (14.4% response rate).

Results: The majority of respondents reported providing OEND in their clinical settings and attitudes and beliefs of respondents are consistent with ongoing diffusion of OEND in Maine. The major facilitators of the provision of OEND were the interest in providing an agreement with the importance of OEND. Identified barriers included the "time" required to provide education and the cost of naloxone as well as lack of insurance coverage for medication.

Conclusions: Many physicians are provinding OEND in their clinical settings. Addressing identified facilitators and barriers to delivering OEND is essential to the further spread of patient education and prescribing naloxone. The diffusion of this innovative patient education and naloxone has the potential to reduce opiate related drug deaths in the future.



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