Trends in Risk of Pregnancy Loss Among US Women, 1990-2011
Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
fetal loss, miscarriage, spontaneous abortion, stillbirth
Background: Pregnancy loss can have physical and psychological consequences for women and their families. Though a previous study described an increase in the risk of self-reported pregnancy loss from 1970 to 2000, more recent examinations from population-based data of US women are lacking. Methods: We used data from the 1995, 2002, 2006-2010, 2011-2015 National Survey of Family Growth on self-reported pregnancy loss (miscarriage, stillbirth, ectopic pregnancy) among US women (15-44 years) who reported at least one pregnancy conceived during 1990-2011 that did not result in induced termination (n = 20 012 women; n = 42 526 pregnancies). Trends in the risk of self-reported pregnancy loss and early pregnancy loss (<12 weeks) were estimated, separately, by year of pregnancy conception (limited to 1990-2011 to ensure a sufficient sample of pregnancies for each year and maternal age group) using log-Binomial and Poisson models, adjusted for maternal- and pregnancy-related factors. Results: Among all self-reported pregnancies, excluding induced terminations, the risk of pregnancy loss was 19.7% and early pregnancy loss was 13.5% during 1990-2011. Risk of pregnancy loss increased by a relative 2% (rate ratio [RR] 1.02, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01, 1.02) per year in unadjusted models and 1% per year (RR 1.01, 95% CI 1.00, 1.02) during 1990-2011, after adjustment for maternal characteristics and pregnancy-related factors. In general, trends were similar for early pregnancy loss. Conclusion: From 1990 to 2011, risk of self-reported pregnancy loss increased among US women. Further work is needed to better understand the drivers of this increase in reported pregnancy loss in the US.
Rossen, L.M., Ahrens, K.A., & Branum, A.M. (2018). Trends in Risk of Pregnancy Loss Among US Women, 1990-2011. Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology, 32(1), 19-29. https://doi.org/10.1111/ppe.12417