How Clean is Clean?: A Comparative Analysis of the Reliance of Risk Assessment in Contaminated Site Cleanup
Quantitative risk assessment is a crucial tool in determining the degree of clean up at contaminated sites and to answer the fundamental question -- how clean is clean? The purpose of this study was to examine how the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has relied on quantitative risk assessment in its three site remediation programs: Superfund, the RCRA Corrective Action Program, and the Underground Storage Tank Corrective Action Program. Interestingly, each of these programs were created within a few years of each other, has the same statutory cleanup goals, addresses some similar contaminants, addresses the same environmental media,uses the same toxicological data, and uses the same default exposure assumptions. However, over time,each program's reliance has become quite different.This study explores the scientific, political,programmatic, organizational, historical, and socio-economic factors that have influenced the divergence.
Hazardous waste site remediation
Wagner, Travis P. How Clean Is Clean?: A Comparative Analysis of the Reliance of Risk Assessment in Contaminated Site Cleanup. VDM Verlag Dr. Müller, 2008.