A Replication Study of the Experimental Evaluation on the Screening Tool for Assessment: Direct Screening Test on Lower Elementary School-Age Children

Date of Award


Call Number


Document Type

Open Access Dissertation

Degree Name

Doctor of Psychology (PsyD)


School Psychology

First Advisor

Wickerd, Garry

Second Advisor

Pratt, Jamie

Third Advisor

Blair, Samantha




Ethical codes exist to insist on fairness in assessment practices. Both the National Association of School Psychologists (NASP) and American Psychological Association (APA) codes of ethics provide guidelines on fairness in assessment. As discussed by Bracken (2004), reducing sources of construct-irrelevant variability in student performance during individually administered assessments is critical to obtaining valid assessment results. Therefore, as a part of a school psychologist’s ethical code and to obtain valid assessment results, these sources of variability need to be identified, controlled, moderated, or eliminated in order to best serve and reliably test actual student ability when administering cognitive and achievement tests. For example, problems with vision may explain some student's variability in results, fatigue, and need for referral. This identification may increase the school psychologist's precision in understanding a student’s knowledge and ability versus a confounding of fatigued performance masked as knowledge and ability. The Screening Tool for Assessment: Direct Screening Test (STA:DST) (2014), created by John H. Kranzler, Ph.D. and Randy G. Floyd, Ph.D., is a unique, brief, and informative screening tool administered prior to cognitive and achievement testing. The STA:DST form works to identify, moderate, and/or prevent construct-irrelevant confounds prior to testing, thereby increasing precision of cognitive and achievement testing results, accuracy of interpretation, and the most useful recommendations for a student.