Date of Award

Spring 2015

Document Type

Open Access Dissertation

Degree Name

Doctor of Psychology (PsyD)



First Advisor

Rachel Brown PhD

Second Advisor

Jack Cummings PhD

Third Advisor

Jonathan Kimball PhD




Individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities may have challenges with executive functioning skills (e.g., planning and organization). Research has shown that external supports, such as activity schedules, increase independence and task engagement. With the availability of mobile devices, activity schedules can be presented to individuals in a flexible and durable manner. Three elementary school students used a low-technology paper-based activity schedule (LT), a high-technology activity schedule (HT) on an iPad, and an ultra high-technology schedule with audio and video (UHT) on an iPad for the same routine. Results demonstrated increased on-task behavior with the use of an activity schedule over none. However, there were no significant differences in on-task behavior among paper-based and iPad-based schedules. Still, preference assessments demonstrated students favored the ultra-high-technology schedule. Implications of these findings and future research are discussed.