Enhanced Photoluminescence from Group 14 Metalloles in Aggregated and Solid Solutions
The unusual photoluminescence characteristics of a series of six group 14 metalloles (1,1-dimethyl-2,3,4,5-tetraphenylmetalloles and 1,1-diphenyl-2,3,4,5-tetraphenylmetalloles) containing silicon, germanium, or tin have been investigated. Although the compounds are weakly luminescent in dilute fluid solution at room temperature, they undergo a substantial enhancement of photoluminescence when forced to aggregate, as in mixed solvent systems. The compounds also exhibit considerable emission when incorporated into rigid room-temperature glasses of sucrose octaacetate. Absorption and emission characteristics of the compounds, including luminescence quantum yields, in fluid solution, solution-phase aggregates, and room-temperature glasses are reported. Quantum yields increase by as much as 2 orders of magnitude in the aggregates and glasses, compared to fluid solution. Experimental evidence supports the conclusion that the aggregation-induced enhancement of luminescence results from restricted intramolecular rotations in the packed metalloles. The unusual aggregation-induced enhancement of these compounds makes them potentially useful for the fabrication of a variety of electrooptical devices and sensors. In addition, the X-ray crystal structure of hexaphenylgermole is reported.
Tracy, H.J., Mullin, J.L., Klooster, W.T., Martin, J.A., Haug, J., Wallace, S., Rudloe, I., & Watts, K. (2005). Enhanced photoluminescence from group 14 metalloles in aggregated and solid solutions. Inorganic Chemistry. 44(6), 2003-2011.