Journal Of Experimental Biology
The dynamics of pectoral fin rowing in the threespine stickleback are investigated by measuring the instantaneous force balance on freely swimming fish throughout the stroke cycle and comparing the measured forces with fin motions and an unsteady, blade-element model of pectoral fin propulsion. Both measured and modeled forces suggest that attached vortex and circulatory forces and not inertial (added mass) forces dominate the force balance. Peak forces occur at midstrokes. There is no evidence for large force peaks at the stroke transitions due to either rapid fin rotation (supination) or rapid fin closure against the body. The energetics of pectoral fin rowing are estimated using the unsteady blade-element model and an indirect method based on the center of mass dynamics. The results indicate that the mechanical efficiency of pectoral fin rowing is low (0.1-0.3) relative to a flapping mechanism and possibly relative to axial undulation at comparable speeds.
Walker JA. (2004). Dynamics of pectoral fin rowing in a fish with an extreme rowing stroke: the threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). Journal Of Experimental Biology, 207(11): 1925-1939.