Document Type

Policy Brief

Publication Date



MRHRC, behavioral health, population health, substance use disorder


This study examined the prevalence of non-medical use of pain relievers and heroin in the past year in rural and urban areas and the socio-demographic and economic characteristics associated with their use. Additionally, we examined opioid use by age at first use as well as dependence and abuse; treatment history and perceived need for treatment; use of alcohol and other drugs; perceived risk of using drugs and availability of drugs; problems resulting from the use of drugs; driving under the influence; and illegal activities and arrest records.



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