Document Type


Publication Date


Publication Title

Indian Journal Of Medical Research


Chromate, chromium, chromosome instability, epigenetic changes, genomic instability, hexavalent chromium, lead chromate, mutations, zinc chromate, USM


Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)), a commonly used industrial metal, is a well known human lung carcinogen. Epidemiology and animal studies suggest that the particulate Cr(VI) compounds, specifically the water insoluble compounds, are the more potent carcinogens, however, the carcinogenic mechanism remains unknown. Here we summarize recent Cr(VI)-induced human tumour, in vivo, cell culture and in vitro studies and put the data into context with three major paradigms of carcinogenesis: multistage carcinogenesis, genomic instability, and epigenetic modifications. Based on these studies, we propose a mechanism for chromate carcinogenesis that is primarily driven by the genomic instability paradigm.