This study examined the prevalence of non-medical use of pain relievers and heroin in the past year in rural and urban areas and the socio-demographic and economic characteristics associated with their use. Additionally, we examined opioid use by age at first use as well as dependence and abuse; treatment history and perceived need for treatment; use of alcohol and other drugs; perceived risk of using drugs and availability of drugs; problems resulting from the use of drugs; driving under the influence; and illegal activities and arrest records.
Lenardson, J. D., Gale, J. A., & Ziller, E. C. (2016). Rural opioid abuse: Prevalence and user characteristics. (PB 63-1). Portland, ME: University of Southern Maine, Muskie School of Public Service, Maine Rural Health Research Center.